Imagine you run a small bakery. There’s an order for a birthday cake that needs to be delivered in a day. You get all the ingredients and begin preparing the cake batter. After a few hours, you get a call from the same customer asking for a strawberry frosting on the cake. You agree because you haven’t baked the cake yet.
You get another call from the customer asking for a three-tier cake. Then another call telling you to put mickey mouse on the top. And then another to put a ‘Happy Birthday Matt’ on the side.
You begrudgingly agree despite knowing that the delivery time has become short and it’s going to cost you a little more than the originally agreed-upon price.
So, what went wrong here?
The scope of the project was not clearly defined at the beginning and the baker accommodated small changes without modifying the budget or the expected timeline. This is called scope creep and project managers deal with this all the time.
To understand scope creep, it’s important to know the meaning of scope in a project. The PMBOK Guide defines scope as
“the extent of what a project will produce and the work needed to produce it.”
On the other hand, scope creep is defined as the subtle deviation of the project from the original scope through the addition of new features. It starts with a very small change request that you don’t mind doing. These requests slowly start to pile up and ultimately lead to huge problems.
According to PMI’s The pulse of profession 2018, 52% of all projects face scope creep in one way or another. Another concerning factor is that seven years ago, the percentage of projects affected by scope creep was 43%. You can see that rather than decreasing, the percentage is actually ‘creeping’ up.
It is important to know that you cannot completely eliminate scope creep from your projects. Customers’ demands might change in the middle of the project. So you should always be prepared for some changes.
Scope creep is usually disastrous for a project but there are instances when diverging from the original plan becomes acceptable. Since many projects run over the course of several years, there can be changes in the market dynamics or in the customers’ requirements which causes the project’s scope to expand.
Some positive aspects of this expansion are listed below:
Accommodating change requests means your team is going above and beyond for a customer. This improves your reputation in the market and not only generates new customers but also ensures that the previous customers return to you for future projects.
When your features are frequently getting updated, your final product will be able to meet the requirements of the market easily. But changes in the project must be according to the given constraints and changes must be reflected in the updated deadlines and budget
If your company charges clients on a per hour basis or your rates are according to the deliverables demanded. Change requests can mean an increase in the revenues of your company.
The increase in the project’s objective can also mean a learning opportunity for your team. For the next time, you can optimize your internal processes in order to reduce creep in the future.
There are numerous reasons why the scope of a project changes. Small changes in the requirements eventually snowball into new features. Another reason can be the change in the management of the clients’ company. Similarly, there are times when clients do not explain their vision properly which may lead to the project manager failing to specify the project’s scope properly.
Most of the causes of this deviation can be avoided if project managers improve their management practices. The results of adopting better project management practices are evident in the PMI’s Pulse of Profession 2018.
Organizations with a high level of maturity and better practices successfully avoided scope creep in their projects. The percentage of projects getting affected was 33% in Organizations with better management practices, which is an impressive feat.
Some of the most common reasons for scope creep are listed below:
Lack of effective communication between the project manager and the clients is usually the biggest hurdle in scope creep risk mitigation. When a project manager does not understand the requirements clearly, the final product will be entirely different from the client’s vision.
Sometimes clients are also to blame, especially creative projects. They often do not have a clear vision of what they want, which leads to more confusion. Statements like “I’ll know when I see it” are a headache for project teams.
Adopting and strictly adhering to project management principles is a tried-and-tested method of preventing scope creep from dismantling your entire project. Suppose the client asked you for a simple change during a meeting and you know it would only take you an hour to do that. So naturally, you won’t think of recording that change, but these things accumulate over time and can cause delays in the project.
Another factor that may cause problems is the lack of a centralized process. When everything is done haphazardly, you’ll miss something in the end.
Project teams sometimes start to focus on adding additional features in order to impress the clients. This may backfire if the project is required to be completed in a very short period. Spending time on extra features means you either performed below par on a necessary feature or you won’t have time to complete it, which will ultimately cause unwanted delays.
Another huge cause of unauthorized changes in a project’s objectives is the communication gap between stakeholders. Clients often do not respond quickly to the project team’s emails or phone calls. Similarly, there are times when the project runs into a bottleneck and there is a need to expand the scope.
However, without any input from the clients, the decision falls solely on the project teams. This leads to unapproved changes that the client may not like.
‘Too many chefs spoil the broth’ and that is indeed the case with ongoing projects. If the clients assign multiple people to run point on the project, they’ll each have a different vision and that would ultimately create major confusion.
Similarly, giving major decision powers to multiple members of the project team can also lead to issues. Giving a certain level of autonomy to the team members is good for the project but as a manager, it’s your job to set the limits.
While these issues are quite hard to avoid, there are several steps you can take to ensure that you are in control and the effects of scope creep remain at a minimum.
You can’t avoid scope creep completely and in some cases, a small deviation from the original plan is necessary for the success of the project. The goal of the project manager should be to manage scope creep in such a way that ensures the success of the project and leaves the clients satisfied with your service. Because if you keep saying no to every single request by the clients, I guarantee that they will not return.
In order to stay ahead, you must be vigilant from the first day. During the planning phase of the project be sure to involve all the stakeholders to make sure that everything is clear. Similarly, it’s also better to ask the clients to come up with a project charter and a list of features in order in order to better understand their vision.
It is very important to come up with a list of critical tasks that must be completed in order to finish the project. A priority list is so important that many modern project management methodologies require it. By prioritizing tasks, you can also keep your team in check and prevent them from wasting time by focusing on unimportant tasks.
Another way of reducing the number of change requests is to charge for additional features. This will not only increase your revenue but also discourage unnecessary change requests. Similarly, a zero-sum game can also be a smart option. If a feature is being added to the project charter, be sure to get something out. This will keep the time and resources you’ll need to spend on a particular project constant.
Modern projects cannot be completed successfully without help from technology. And no, I don’t mean spreadsheets because they’ll make your job harder. There are project management tools like Kissflow Projects that can significantly enhance the performance of your team.
It’s important for a project manager to be able to stand up to stakeholders and reject change requests when the situation demands it. You must explain to them the effects certain changes would have on the entire project. Ask for an extension in the deadline if too many changes are requested. Effectively communicating with clients early can save you from a lot of problems at a later stage.
A clear and centralized change management plan can help you by keeping a record of all change requests and their statuses. You can easily prioritize and analyze the impact of any request on the project. You can identify dependent tasks, scheduling and budgeting problems, and many other bottlenecks before they occur. You will see that anticipating change in your strategy can make a huge difference in the performance of your team.
Scope creep is a global problem and all teams face it. It’s case-specific and a successful solution for one team might not work at all for the other. So, it’s important for you to remain vigilant from the start. The reasons behind it are numerous and only by employing effective management techniques and the right tools, it can be avoided.